The Struggle is Real

 

I work with teachers every single day. I work with veteran teachers, new-to-the-profession teachers, highly skilled teachers, and teachers who are still learning the craft. Teachers most often feel confident about teaching the content they are required to teach. They tend to struggle more with classroom management/organization, classroom discipline, and providing for the multiple needs of their students on a routine basis. Another area of challenge for many teachers is allowing students to struggle.

Teachers by nature want to see students succeed; so much so that all too often teachers don’t allow students to struggle long enough to build deep understanding. Whether one calls it “productive failure” (a concept coined by Dr. Manu Kapur) or “growth mindset” (Carol Dweck) or something I like to refer to as “effort creates ability”, giving student time to struggle is a challenging instructional concept for many teachers.

Allowing students to struggle is different from intervening with struggling students. We know students will come to us with learning gaps. In education, we tend to think of struggling as something we need to eliminate or remove from the equation of learning for a student. In fact, if you do a Google search on “helping students struggle” you will find pages and pages of links to help the “struggling student”. We know we have students who struggle to learn and reducing the learning gaps that cause that kind of struggle is necessary. However, the purpose of this article is to help educators think about how they can build “struggle” into the learning process in order to help all students build knowledge, competency, and confidence in their academic pursuits.

Letting students struggle has some very important, and lasting, effects on students. Students who are given time to struggle with content, concepts, and critical thinking benefit by:

  1. orienting students to a focus on learning over knowing
  2. engaging in challenging tasks that help the brain make new connections and, thus, become smarter
  3. seeing how a “work hard and get smart” approach allows them to overcome many challenges
  4. learning that is easy isn’t usually a good use of their time
  5. developing a sense of academic pride and self-confidence in tackling and resolving challenging problems
  6. seeing the value in embracing mistakes instead of avoiding and covering up mistakes as a necessary part of learning
  7. gaining motivation and interest in the learning process as they seek solutions to mistakes and unknowns

Allowing students to struggle in the learning process promotes the process of studentsimage working hard at reasoning through challenging problems in order to gain new knowledge and understanding. The process of struggling will oftentimes include failure as students try out new thinking and apply prior learning to novel experiences. Students need to engage in difficult experiences where solutions and answers don’t come easily. They need to experience failure and frustration as part of the problem solving and learning process.

 

How can teachers help students embrace “the struggle”? What are some ways in which teachers can foster, in students, the appreciation of struggling to find answers and make learning connections? A few easy strategies include:

  1. Design the questions you will use as the teacher in a way that requires students to think more deeply about the problem or make connections to other content or concepts.
  2. Have students articulate their thinking process to their current point of struggle or even ask them “what would you do if you knew what to do?” Sometimes thinking from the endpoint to the point of struggle allows students to see new options.
  3. Utilize classroom routines that promote and develop struggle while providing a structured process to move students towards a solution. As the teacher, see how you can teach a concept/skill without explicitly telling students what they need to do.
  4. Utilize small, incremental goals throughout the learning process to help students see their progress and understand that success can occur throughout the struggle.
  5. When students succeed, praise their efforts and strategies as opposed to their intelligence.
  6. Design classroom activities that involve cooperative–rather than competitive or individualistic–work.
  7. Include student choice and voice in the learning process. When students can choose their topics of interest and evidence of learning, they are more likely to persevere during challenging learning experiences.

Helping students understand that struggling is part of the learning process is an essential consideration for all educators. Students need to understand that learning can sometimes be very difficult and answers don’t always present themselves easily or clearly. When we rely on the typical process of “I do – We do – You do” for our imageinstructional delivery, we may inadvertently shortcut deeper learning available to our students. Implementing the strategies mentioned above can help your students understand more deeply, persevere more consistently, and grow more fully. How will you help your students struggle this year?

 

Advertisements

Low SES and Minority Students More Likely to Have Inexperienced Teachers–How to Address this Challenge!

A new White House report reveals what many of us in education have known for a long time: our most needy students often times have the least prepared and experienced teachers.  The report states the share of first-year teachers was strongly correlated with the share of black and chart3_k12_sharefirstyrteachersHispanic students.  Nearly twice as many first-year teachers are teaching in predominantly minority schools (which are often times low SES as well) compared to schools with no minorities.

We know that teaching is a very difficult profession to gain mastery in and that it takes teachers 5-7 years to develop the content knowledge, pedagogy, and skill sets to become a master teacher.  For minority students, the constant revolving door of first-year teachers comes with the reality that their academic gaps will most likely not be closed with novice, inexperienced teachers.  Many schools and districts compound this challenge by placing minority students, often the ones with the most academic needs, in the most inexperienced teacher classrooms.

Our minority students deserve to have the same access to high quality teachers and resources as non-minority students.  Our low SES students, which often cross over racial demographics, deserve the very same access to high quality teachers.

Districts and campuses that serve minority students and low SES communities have to begin to think about providing the in-service support new teachers need in order to develop competencies and confidence as quickly as possible.  A well implemented teacher induction program is not only the best way to support new teachers in those crucial first years but it will also help improve the likelihood that new teachers stick around longer and become the invested teachers these campuses and districts need if they are to truly turnaround the achievement gaps in their system.

Here in West Oso ISD, we are trying to address this very need through our teacher induction program, Bear TIPS.  Our program seeks to provide 3 years of in-service support teacher-induction-logoto our new teachers.  We begin with a First Year Teacher Academy (FYTA) that meets with teachers six times during the first year.  We follow that up with a FYTA2 in year 2 that focuses on deepening teacher understanding of best practices and effective instructional strategies.  FYTA3 is in year 3 and focuses on assessing for learning.  The program also has specific mentor training so that our new teachers are supported by an experienced colleague on their campus in addition to the FYTA supports and the site leader support.  We add to these components a periodic newsletter that lets the entire district know what the FYTA teachers are working on and how to support our new teachers in those crucial first years.

We were fortunate enough to be recognized by Texas School Business magazine fobragging10r the Bragging Rights 2016-2017 issue as an innovative program.  We’re humbled to be included with the other 11 districts recognized in the issue.  We accept the recognition as proof that when district leadership wants to take specific steps to address the staffing challenges and the academic challenges that can come with minority dominant communities, great things can happen.

We know that much work remains and the struggle to provide our students with the highest quality teachers available will exist for some time.  We hope that we have at least modeled a way in which districts, small or large, can begin to address the needs of all students and create the equity we know should exist across the educational spectrum.

Chunk & Chew: Giving Learners Processing Time

How brain friendly is your classroom?  In the race to cover material and teach concepts/skills, do your students have time during their “learning” to actually process the things being taught?  In almost any lesson there is new or essential information presented to students.  Some times students are able to acquire this information without much difficulty while other times, it can be quite the challenge and even interfere with mastery of the essential learning goal.

In Robert Marzano’s seminal book, The Art and Science of Teaching, he shares one strategy that can prove to be very effective for students when trying to help them acquire new information or essential concepts/skills.  Instead of forcing large amounts of new information on students at one time or during an extended amount of time, he recommends “chunking” the information.  Chunking is the process of taking essential information and breaking it into small, digestible bits that allow students to understand the information more deeply while also making connections and building context for deeper understanding.

Spence Rogers adds to this idea by allowing for processing time as well and calls it the “10-2 Rule“.  For every ten minutes of instruction, students should be given two minutes to process or interact with the information.  I like to think of this in t10-2erms of pouring a bottle of soda into a glass.  At one point the glass will be filled and there will still be soda left in the bottle to be poured (more information).  You can either keep
pouring it and spill the soda all over the counter OR you can take the time to drink some from the glass which will allow you to pour more soda into the glass.  Our students, all learners really, are like that glass.  They must be given the time to process the information we are sending their way.  For younger students, this time can be even shorter than 10 minutes.  Another good rule of thumb to use is no more than one minute per year of age before taking a break for processing.  So if you’re teaching an 8 year old (2nd grade), you should be stopping every eight minutes or so to give them a couple minutes to process the information, concept, or skill.

I tend to use the term “chunk and chew” when I refer to this processing time within instruction.  There are lots of ways in which teachers can chewimplement a processing time within their lessons.  It doesn’t have to just be a stop, turn and talk, then back to the lesson process.  A few other examples of effective processing strategies include:

 

  • Think-Pair-Share:  Teacher teaches.  Teacher asks asks a question or gives a problem.  Teacher asks partners to think about it on their own.  Partners take turns sharing their thoughts.
  • Mix-Pair-Share:  Teacher teaches.  Group mixes around the room (music playing in background helps).  Teacher tells students to pair up with nearest student.  Teacher gives them a topic to discuss.  Mix again and repeat.
  • Round Robin:  Team numbers off (1-4).  Teacher assigns a task, question, or problem.  Teammates answers question in turn order.  Teacher leads a whole group discussion to verify and clarify.
  • Four Corners:  Teacher has the room divided into four areas/regions/corners with a theme or answer choice (stongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree).  Teacher gives a prompt and students move to the corner that aligns with their their thoughts/understanding.  Students form groups of two or three in their corner and discuss their ideas further.  Students can then report out their ideas to the whole class.  (A spinoff or extension of this could be to let the students choose a new corner after hearing from all of the groups to see if they have changed their mind.)

These are just a few simple and fairly common strategies teachers can use with their students to give them processing time.  Some of them even have the added advantage of being kinesthetic and tapping into multiple learning styles which is also an important consideration in helping students master new information, concepts, and skills.

I hope you’ll give this notion of “chunk and chew” a try in your classroom and if you have other strategies or ideas, please share them as comments to the blog so others can learn as well!